Sources are listed in two places. Here I give those general sources, books and maps which apply across most or all of the area of study. Books and articles which deal with one specific topic such as land-assessment are grouped together. Where a source really only affects one district I have included it in the island or parish text summary. However I have been inclined only to give the principal references since there are often a great many later copies.


In order to save space lots of abbreviations are used in the tables and text summaries. I give these below:


ALI = Acts of the Lords of the Isles (see under Munro, J. & R.W.)

APS = Acts of Parliament of Scotland – now also online at

AS = Argyll Sasines (see under Campbell, H.)

AVR = Argyll Valuation Roll, 1751

BL = British Library

CPNS = Celtic Place-Names of Scotland (see under Watson)

CRA = Collectanea de Rebus Albanicis

CSSR = Calendar of Scottish Supplications to Rome

ER = Exchequer Rolls

GD + No = Gifts & Deposits, National Archives of Scotland

HP = Highland Papers (volumes published by Scottish History Society)

NAS = National Archives of Scotland

NLS = National Library of Scotland

NRAS = National Register of Archives Scotland (via NAS)

OS = Ordnance Survey

RCAHMS = Royal Commission on Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland

RHP = Register House Plan (National Archives of Scotland, West Register House)

RMS = Registrum Magni Sigilli Regum Scottorum (Register of the Great Seal)

RSS = Registrum Secreti Sigilli Regum Scottorum (Register of the Privy Seal)

SHS = Scottish History Society




Acts of Parliament of Scotland, Thomson, T., & Innes, C., (eds.), London, 1814-75

An Inventory of Lamont Papers, Scottish Record Society, Edinburgh, 1914

Anderson, A.O., Early Sources of Scottish History, vols1-2, Stamford, 1990

Argyll Valuation Roll, 1751 – MS copies in National Archives of Scotland (Edinburgh), Mitchell Library (Glasgow) and Argyll & Bute Archives (Lochgilphead).

Bain, J. (ed.), Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland, Vol II, Edinburgh, 1884

Barrow, G.W.S., The Acts of Malcolm IV, Regesta Regum Scottorum I, Edinburgh, 1960

Barrow, G.W.S., The Acts of William I, Regesta Regum Scottorum II, Edinburgh, 1971

Barrow, G.W.S., The Charters of King David I, Woodbridge, 1999

Broderick, G., Chronicles of the Kings of Man and the Isles, Manx National Heritage, 1995

Campbell, H., (ed.), Argyll Sasines Vols I-II, Edinburgh, 1933-4

CANMORE – online database of Royal Commission on Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland

Cochrane, R., Report of the Excursion of the Cambrian Archaeological Association, Dublin, 1900. (= Cambrian Scotch Excursion).

Crawford, B.E., The earldom of Caithness and the kingdom of Scotland, 1150-1266, Northern Scotland Vol 2 No 2, Aberdeen, 1976-77

Collectanea de Rebus Albanicis, Edinburgh, 1847

Cregeen, E.R., (ed.), Argyll Estate Instructions 1771-1805, SHS, Edinburgh, 1964

Cubbon, W., & Megaw, B.R.S., The Western Isles and the Growth of the Manx Parliament, in The Journal of the Manx Museum, Vol V, No 66, June 1942

Dodgshon, R.A., Land and Society in Early Scotland, Oxford, 1981

Dowden, J., (ed.), The Chartulary of the Abbey of Lindores, 1195-1479, SHS, Edinburgh, 1903.

Domesday Book, (Alecto Historical Editions), Penguin, London, 2003

Downham, C., Viking Kings of Britain and Ireland, Edinburgh, 2007

Duffy, S., ‘Irishmen and Islesmen in the Kingdoms of Dublin and Man, 1052-1171’, Eriu 43, 1992, pp 93-133

Duncan, A.A.M., & Brown, A.L., Argyll and the Isles in the Earlier Middle Ages, PSAS pp 192-220, 1956-57

Duncan, A.A.M., (ed.), The Acts of Robert  I, (Regesta Regum Scottorum V),  Edinburgh, 1988

Dwelly, E., Gaelic-English Dictionary, Birlinn, 1993

Etchingham, C., ‘North Wales, Ireland and the Isles: the Insular Viking Zone’, Peritia 15, 2001, pp 145-187

Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, Stuart, J., Burnett, G., et al. (eds.), Edinburgh,1878-1908

Extracts from the Records of the Royal Burgh of Lanark, Glasgow, 1893

Facsimiles of the National MSS of Scotland,  London, 1867-71

Gaffney, V., The Lordship of Strathavon, Third Spalding Club, Aberdeen, 1960

Highland Papers, vols I-IV, SHS, 1914-34

Hudson, B.T., Cnut and the Scottish Kings, English Historical Review pp 350-360, 1992

Johnson & Boswell, A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland & The Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides, OUP, 1974

Kirk, J., Tanner, R.J., Dunlop, A.I., (eds.), Calendar of Scottish Supplications to Rome vol V 1447-1471, Edinburgh, 1997

Lamb, R.G., The Orkney Trebs in JC Chapman & HC Mythum (eds) Settlement in North Britain 1000 BC – 1000 AD, 1983

Lawrie, A.C., Early Scottish Charters prior to AD 1153, Glasgow, 1905

Liber Collegii Nostre Domine, J. Robertson (ed.), Maitland Club, Glasgow, 1846

Macalpine, N., Pronouncing Gaelic-English Dictionary, Glasgow, 1975

Macdonald, J., General View of the Agriculture of the Hebrides, Edinburgh, 1811

Macfarlane, W., Geographical Collections relating to Scotland, SHS, 1906-8

Maciver, D., Place-names of Lewis and Harris, Stornoway, 1934

Maclennan, M., Gaelic Dictionary, Acair & Mercat, 1992

McNeill, P.G.B., & MacQueen, H.L., (eds.) Atlas of Scottish History to 1707, Edinburgh, 1996

Martin Martin, A Description of the Western Islands of Scotland, Birlinn, 1994

Megaw, B., Norseman and native in the Kingdom of the Isles, in Davey, P., (ed.), Man and Environment in the Isle of Man, British Archaeological Reports, Vol 54 pp 265-314, Oxford, 1978

Munro, J. & R.W., (eds), Acts of the Lords of the Isles, SHS, Edinburgh, 1986

Munro, R.W. (ed.), Monro’s Western Isles of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1961

Origines Parochiales Scotiae Vol I, Edinburgh, 1851

Origines Parochiales Scotiae Vol II, Part I, Edinburgh, 1854

Origines Parochiales Scotiae Vol II, Part II, Edinburgh, 1855

RCAHMS Inventory of Outer Hebrides, Skye and the Small Isles, Edinburgh, 1928

Registrum Magni Sigilli Regum Scottorum, Thomson, J.M., (ed.), Edinburgh, (reprint), 1984

Registrum Secreti Sigilli Regum Scottorum, Livingstone, M., et al. (eds.), Edinburgh, 1908-1982

Registrum Monasterii de Passelet, (Maitland Club), Paisley, 1877

Rennie, E.B., Cowal, A Historical Guide, Edinburgh, 1993

Rennie, E.B., The ‘Cowal’ Shore, Glendaruel, 2006

Retours – see under Thomson, T.

Robertson, W., ‘Robertson’s Index’, Edinburgh, 1798

Scoular, J.M., Handlist of the Acts of Alexander II, Edinburgh, 1959

Sinclair, Sir J., General View of the agriculture of the northern counties and islands of Scotland, London, 1795

Skene, W.F., Celtic Scotland, Edinburgh (1886-90)

Smith, J., General View of the Agriculture of the County of Argyll, Edinburgh, 1798, (republished by The Grimsay Press, Glasgow, 2003)

Stenton, F.M., Anglo-Saxon England, Oxford, 1971

Stevenson, J., (ed.), Liber Vitae Ecclesiae Dunelmensis, Surtees Society 13, London, 1841

Stuart, J., Records of the Monastery of Kinloss, Edinburgh, 1872

Stuart, J., (ed.), Registrum de Panmure, vol II, Edinburgh, 1874

Thomson, T., (ed.), Inquisitionum ad Capellam Domini Regis Retornatarum, (Retours), London, 1811-1816

Watson, W.J., The History of the Celtic Place-Names of Scotland, (republished) Edinburgh, 1993

Watt, D.E.R., Bagimond di Vezza and his roll, Scottish Historical Review, Vol 80 No 209, 2001

Webster, B., (ed.), The Acts of David II, (Regesta Regum Scottorum VI), Edinburgh, 1982

Whitelock, D., English Historical Documents I, London, 1968

Woolf, A., From Pictland to Alba, Edinburgh, 2007




Pont Manuscript Maps – available via National Library of Scotland website

Blaeu Atlas – available via National Library of Scotland website

Roy Protracted Copy (British Library, King’s Topographical Collection)

Langlands, Map of Argyll 1801

Ordnance Survey 6″ 1st edition maps of Scotland available through NLS website



Coins & Weights

Anderson, A.O., Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers, Stamford, 1991.

Blackburn, M., Hiberno-Norse imitations of Watchet Long cross coins, pp 195-197 & Plate 18, Numismatic Chronicle, 7th series, Vol 15, 1975

Blackburn, M., Hiberno-Norse and Irish Sea imitations of Cnut’s Quatrefoil type, The British Numismatic Journal, pp 1-20, 1996

Blackburn, M., Currency under the Vikings. Part 4. The Dublin Coinage c. 995 – c. 1050, The British Numismatic Journal, pp 111-137, 2008

Bornholdt, K., Myth or Mint? The evidence for a Viking-Age coinage from the Isle of Man, in Davey, P., (ed.), Recent Archaeological Research in the Isle of Man pp 199-218, BAR (British Series 278), Oxford, 1999

Callender, R.M., The Ancient Lead Mining Industry of Islay, Islay Museums Trust, c. 1981

Crawford, B.E., Scandinavian Scotland, Leicester, 1987

Dolley, M., Viking Coins of the Danelaw and of Dublin, London, 1965

Dolley, RHM., The Hiberno-Norse Coins in the British Museum, Sylloge of Coins of the British Isles No 8, London, 1966

Dolley, M., A Hiberno-Manx Coinage of the Eleventh Century, pp 75-84 & Plate 13, Numismatic Chronicle, 7th series, Vol 16, 1976

Forbes, A.R., Place-names of Skye, Paisley, 1923

Galster, G., The Royal Danish Collection, Copenhagen, Part V, Sylloge of Coins of the British Isles No 22, 1975

Graham-Campbell, J., The Viking-age silver and gold hoards of Scandinavian character from Scotland, PSAS 107 pp 114-135, 1975-6

Graham-Campbell, J., An unpublished gold finger-ring of Viking-age date from the Isle of Skye, and new light on the 1850 Skye hoard, PSAS 112 pp 568-570 & Plate 40b, 1982

Graham-Campbell, J., The Viking-Age Gold and Silver of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1995

Graham-Campbell, J., & Batey, C.E., Vikings in Scotland, Edinburgh, 1998

Graham-Campbell, J., The Viking-Age Gold and Silver of the North Atlantic Region, in A. Mortenson & S.V. Arge (eds.) Viking and Norse in the North Atlantic, Torshavn, 2005, Chapter 12

Graham-Campbell, J., Viking Age and Late Norse gold and silver from Scotland: an update, PSAS 138, pp 193-204, 2008

Graham-Campbell, J., The Viking-Age Silver Hoard(s) from Dunrossness, Shetland, Northern Studies Vol 41, 2010

Harvey, S., Royal Revenue and Domesday Terminology, The Economic History Review, Second Series, Vol XX, No 2, pp 221-228, 1967

Kluge, B., Sylloge of Coins of the British Isles No 36, State Museum Berlin, Anglo-Saxon, Anglo-Norman and Hiberno-Norse Coins, London, 1987

Kruse, S.E., Ingots and weight units in Viking Age silver hoards, World Archaeology Vol 20 No 2, pp 285-301, 1988

Kruse, S.E., Silver storage and circulation in Viking-Age Scotland, in The Viking Age in Caithness, Orkney and the North Atlantic, pp 187-203, 11th Viking Congress, Edinburgh, 1989

Lawrie, A.C., Annals of the reigns of Malcolm and William, Glasgow, 1910

Nightingale, P., The Ora, the Mark and the Mancus: Weight-Standards and the Coinage in Eleventh-Century England, Part 1, pp 248-257, Numismatic Chronicle, Vol 143, 1983

Nightingale, P., The Ora, the Mark and the Mancus: Weight-Standards and the Coinage in Eleventh-Century England, Part 2, pp 234-248, Numismatic Chronicle, Vol 144, 1984

Nightingale, P., The Evolution of Weight-Standards and the Creation of New Monetary and Commercial Links in Northern Europe from the Tenth Century to the Twelfth Century, pp 192-209, Economic History Review, 38, 1985

Nightingale, P., English medieval weight standards revisited, The British Numismatic Journal, pp 177-193, 2008

O’Sullivan, J., et al., Excavation of an early church and a women’s cemetery at St Ronan’s medieval parish church, Iona; Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Vol 124, 1994, pp 327-365

O’Sullivan, W., The Earliest Irish Coinage, Dublin, 1969

Parsons, H.A., The Chronology of the Hiberno-Danish coinage, British Numismatic Journal XVII pp 99-124, 1923

Pennant, T., A Tour in Scotland and Voyage to the Hebrides, 1772, London, 1790.

Talvio, T., The National Museum, Helsinki, Sylloge of Coins of the British Isles No 25, 1978

Seaby, W., Sylloge of Coins of the British Isles No 32, Ulster Museum: Belfast, Part II, Hiberno-Norse Coins, London, 1984

Skaare, K., Coins and coinage in Viking Age Norway, Oslo, 1976

Smart, V., The Penny in the Pennylands: Coinage in Scotland in the Early Middle Ages, Northern Studies 22, pp 65-70, 1985

Warner, R., Scottish silver arm-rings: an analysis of weights, PSAS 107, pp 136-143, 1975-6

Williams, G., Anglo-Saxon and Viking Coin Weights, British Numismatic Journal Vol 69, 1999, pp 19-36




Bangor-Jones, M., Land Assessments & Settlement History in Sutherland and Easter Ross, in Baldwin, J.R., (ed.), Firthlands of Ross and Sutherland, Edinburgh, 1986

Bangor-Jones, M., Ouncelands and Pennylands in Sutherland and Caithness, in MacGregor & Crawford (1987), pp 13-23

Bannerman, J., Studies in the History of Dalriada, Edinburgh, 1974

Barrow, G.W.S., The Kingdom of the Scots, chapter 9, London, 1973. (Chapter 9 was earlier published as ‘Rural settlement in central and eastern Scotland’ in Scottish Studies, vi, pt. 2, 1962)

Brownlie, N.M., Townships and Echoes from Tiree, Glendaruel, 1995

Cartularium Comitatus de Levenax (Lennox Cartulary), Edinburgh, 1833

Charles-Edwards, T.M., Review of Bannerman (1974) in Studia Hibernica 15, 1975, pp 194-6

Cheney, C.R., Manx Synodal Statutes, Part I: Introduction and Latin Texts, Cambridge Medieval Celtic Studies 7, pp 63-89, Summer 1984

Cheney, C.R., Manx Synodal Statutes, Part II: Translation of Latin Texts, Cambridge Medieval Celtic Studies 8, pp 51-63, Winter 1984

Dillon, M., (ed.), Lebor na Cert (The Book of Rights), Dublin, 1962

Dumville, D.N., Cethri Prímchenéla Dáil Riata, Scottish Gaelic Studies 20 pp 170-191, 2000

Dumville, D.N., Ireland and North Britain in the Earlier Middle Ages: Contexts for Míniugud Senchasa Fher nAlban, in Ó Baoill, C., & McGuire, N.R., (eds.), Rannsachadh na Gaidhlig 2000 pp 185-211, Aberdeen, 2002

Easson, A.R., Systems of Land Assessment in Scotland before 1400, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Edinburgh, 1986

Easson, A.R., Ouncelands and Pennylands in the West Highlands of Scotland, in MacGregor & Crawford (1987), pp 1-11

Jackson, K., The Gaelic Notes in the Book of Deer, Cambridge, 1972

Johnsen, A.O., The Payments from the Hebrides and Isle of Man to the crown of Norway 1153-1263, Scottish Historical Review vol 48, 1969, pp 18-34

Lamont, W., ‘House’ and ‘Pennyland’ in the Highland and Isles, Scottish Studies Vol 25, 1981

Levie, W.E., The Scottish Davach or Dauch, Scottish Gaelic Studies 3, 1931

MacGregor, L., & Crawford, B., (eds), Ouncelands and Pennylands, University of St Andrews, 1987

Mackie, J. D., (ed.) Thomas Thomson’s Memorial on Old Extent, The Stair Society, vol 10, Edinburgh, 1946

MacQueen, J., ‘Pennyland and Davoch in SW Scotland’, Scottish Studies vol. 23, 1979

McKerral, A., ‘Ancient denominations of Agricultural land in Scotland’, PSAS 78, 1943-4

McKerral, A., ‘Land Divisions in the West Highlands of Scotland’, Proceedings of the Isle of Man Natural History and Antiquarian Society, Vol. 5 No. 2, 1946-50, pp 12-20

McKerral, A., What was a davach?, PSAS 82 pp 49-52, 1947-8a

McKerral, A., The acre extent of the merkland, PSAS 82 pp 286-8, 1947-8b

McKerral, A., ‘The lesser land and administrative divisions in Celtic Scotland’, PSAS 85, 1950-1

McKerral, A., An Extent of Carrick in 1260, Scottish Historical Review 34 pp 189-90, 1955

Marstrander, C.J.S., Treen og Keill, in Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap, Bind VIII, pp 287-442 (English summary pp 411-431), Oslo, 1937

Megaw, B., ‘Pennyland and Davoch in SW Scotland’, Scottish Studies vol. 23, 1979

Milne, I.A., An Extent of Carrick in 1260, Scottish Historical Review, vol 34, 1955

Ó Corráin, D., Review of Bannerman: ‘Studies in the History of Dalriada’ in Celtica Vol XIII, Dublin, 1980

Oliver, J.R., Monumenta de Insula Manniae, vol II, Douglas, 1861

Oram, R.D., Davachs and Pennylands in South-West Scotland: A Review of the Evidence, in MacGregor & Crawford (1987), pp 46-59

Registrum Monasterii de Passelet (Register of Paisley), Paisley, 1877

Rixson, D., The West Highland Galley, Edinburgh, 1998

Ross, A., The Province of Moray, c. 1000-1230, unpublished PhD thesis, Aberdeen, 2003

Ross, A., The Dabhach in Moray: A New Look at an Old Tub, in Woolf, A., (ed.), Landcape and Environment in Dark Age Scotland, pp 57-74, St Andrews, 2006

Sharpe, R., The Thriving of Dalriada, in Taylor, S., (ed.), Kings, Clerics and Chronicles in Scotland, pp 47-61, Dublin, 2000

Skene, W.F., Celtic Scotland, vol. III, Edinburgh, 1890

Talbot, T., The Manorial Roll of the Isle of Man, 1511-1515, Oxford, 1924

Thomas, F.W.L., ‘What is a Pennyland?’, PSAS 18, 1884

Thomas, F.W.L., ‘Ancient Valuation of Land in the West of Scotland’, PSAS 20, 1885-6

Thomson, W.P.L., Ouncelands and Pennylands in Orkney and Shetland, in MacGregor & Crawford (1987), pp 24-44

Thomson, W.P.L., Lord Henry Sinclair’s 1492 Rental of Orkney, Kirkwall, 1996

Thomson, W.P.L., ‘Ouncelands and Pennylands in the West Highlands and Islands’, Northern Scotland, Vol. 22, pp 27-43, 2002

Watson, W.J., The History of the Celtic Placenames of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1993

Williams, D.G.E., Land Assessment and Military Organisation in the Norse settlements in Scotland, c. 900-1266 AD, unpublished PhD thesis, St Andrews, 1996

Williams, D.G.E., The dabhach Reconsidered: pre-Norse or post-Norse?, Northern Studies Vol 37, 2003

Williams, D.G.E., Land Assessment and the Silver Economy of Norse Scotland, in G. Williams & P. Bibire (eds.), Sagas, Saints and Settlements, pp 65-104, Leiden, 2004



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