No document tells us the exact relationship between arachors and merklands. The best we can hope for is to establish that since X was a quarterland; and since later documents prove that X was worth £5 old extent; therefore a quarterland must have been worth £5. Such a conclusion can then be tested for consistency. In the absence of direct evidence we can salvage what we can from the indirect evidence – i.e. X was due the forinsec service of a quarterland so X was probably a quarterland. Unfortunately this assumption is not always safe as illustrated by comparing Dalquhurn (Cardross parish) and Dalmuir (Old Kilpatrick). They were probably both quarterlands and each was worth £5 (7½m). However Dalquhurn only owed the forinsec service of one-third of a quarterland (Cartularium de Levenax pp 40-41) whilst Dalmuir owed the forinsec service of a full quarterland (Cartularium de Levenax p 42).
Unfortunately just what this forinsec service amounted to is never detailed. Old and customary services like this were probably subject to considerable variation over time and space. There would be local permutations; rewards and favours to supporters and allies; deductions owing to particular circumstances. We cannot place much reliance on land-assessment data revealed to us in this way but we can use it to support other more concrete evidence. Fortunately land-assessment systems follow the rules of arithmetic so there is always an internal consistency once we have established the relationships. In the following I have worked through the parishes in alphabetic order to provide summary data. (For the full evidence see under the individual parish tables). To accompany the data there are tables of £5 lands and £10 lands as well as maps showing arachors, carucates and pennylands.
Cartularium de Levenax pp 30-1. In 1238 Earl Maldoven granted William, son of Arthur, son of Galbraith:
tres carucatas terre in Levenax, scilicet duas Buthernockis et tertiam carucatam terre que vocatur Kyncaith
(three carucates in Lennox, namely two Buthernocks and a third carucate called Kyncaith).
Reddendo p.a. dimidiam marcam argenti (rendering each year half a mark of silver)
Fraser, Stirlings of Keir, No 6, 1381, is a charter by William of Galbraith, lord of Katconvall, to his son, James, of:
vnam carucatam terre … scilicet, dimidietatem de Estyrbothernokis, videlicet, illam dimidietatem que iacet propinquior Kelvyne, et dimidietatem de Westyrbothernokis, videlicet, illam dimidietatem que iacet propinquior la More
(one carucate … namely, half of Easter Baldernock, viz., that half which lies closer to the Kelvin, and half of Wester Baldernock, viz., that half which lies closer to ‘la More’ (the Muir/Moor?))
Evidently there were two carucates in Baldernock, one east, one west. This charter deals with the southern half of the east carucate and the northern half of the west carucate. ‘La More’ presumably describes Blairskaith Muir and Craigmaddie Muir.
OPS I p 47 and Cartularium de Levenax pp 71-2; early in the 15th century Duncan, earl of Lennox, confirmed to John Hamilton:
totas terras de Buthernok
(the whole lands of Buthernok)
OPS argues that since the yearly Reddendo is the same (dimidiam marcam argenti half a merk of silver) this property is that which was granted on Cartularium de Levenax pp 30-31 (see above). I agree – and this means that Baldernock was 2 carucates, Easter and Wester, as described in 1381.
It is clear that the original parish of Baldernock consisted of two carucates.
I can find no evidence of the use of the word arachor in Baldernock.
Cartularium de Levenax pp 31-32, Malcolm, earl of Lennox to Patrick Galbraith:
illam dimidiam quartariam terre que vocatur Camkell, in qua Rachorkane est, intus et propinquius terre de Balinodalach adjacentem
further on called Camokell
(that half quarterland (i.e. eighthland) called Camkell, in which Rachorkane is, within and lying next to Balinodalach)
This may imply that Camoquhill was once reckoned part of Ballindalloch. Ballindalloch was certainly an estate name but possibly it was also the name of an arachor.
Cartularium de Levenax p 24, Malcolm earl of Lennox to Malcolm of Luss:
dimidiam carucatam terre et dimidiam quartariam terre in exteriori parte de Glyne, jacentes inter terram et metas de Syf et Lekych … dictam dimidiam carucatam et dimidiam quartariam terre de Glyne
(half a carucate and an eighthland in the outer part of Glyne, lying between the land and boundaries of Syf and Lekych … the said half-carucate and eighthland of Glyne).
A half carucate would match well with the £10 valuation of Glinn and it may be that the eighthland in the ‘exteriori parte de Glyne’ refers to Easter Glinns although I cannot show that this was a 50s unit.
I can find no evidence of the use of the word arachor in Balfron.
Cartularium de Levenax pp 50-51, Malcolm, earl of Lennox to Patrick Lindsay:
totam terram nostram de Buchnul supra Lewyn, propinquius adjacentem terre de Tulechewyne … faciendo inde in communi forinseco servitio domini Regis … quantum pertinet ad unam dimidiam carucatam terre in Levenax
(all of our land of Buchnul (Bonhill) above the Leven, lying next to the land of Tulechewyne … doing therefor the king’s ‘forensic’ service … as much as pertains to a half-carucate in Lennox).
This document only refers to the west bank of the River Leven but it implies that Bonhill amounted to a half carucate there. The core of these lands became Bonhill-Lindsay.
Cartularium de Levenax pp 69-71, Walter, son of Alan, lord of Lennox granted to Duncan Naper lord of Kylmehew:
decem mercatas terre, videlicet quartariam terre de Bullulis proxime jacentem terre de Bellach et dimidiam quartariam terre de Miltoun
(10 merklands, viz: a quarterland of Bullulis (Bonhill) lying next to the land of Balloch and a half quarterland (i.e. an eighthland) of Miltoun).
These lands are east of the River Leven. A quarterland in Lennox is normally £5 (7½m) and an eighthland would therefore be £2 10s (3¾m). The extent we would expect for three eighthlands is therefore 11¼ merklands, not 10 merklands. The document does go on to subtract a fishery on the River Leven, a mill and 3 acres + grazing for the miller but I am not sure we can equate these with the loss of 1¼ merklands. These lands were probably those known afterwards as Bonhill Napier. This is an example of a situation where my suggested ratio between arachors and merklands does not quite work.
Cartularium de Levenax pp 92-3, Donald, earl of Lennox, granted to Walter of Fosselane, son and heir of Anweleth of Fosselane:
totam illam terram que vocatur Tulewyn, in comitatu nostro de Levenax, super aquam de Levyne; excepta tamen illa terra que vocatur Stukeroger…
(that whole land called Tulewyn [Tulliechewan], in our earldom of Lennox, above the water of Levyne [Leven]; except the land called Stukeroger [Stuckrodgert])
faciendo inde in communi exercitu … forinsecum servitium quantum pertinet ad unam quartariam terre in Levenax
(doing therefor in the common army … the forinsec service pertaining to a quarterland in Lennox)
The implication is that Tulliechewan was a quarterland. Its merkland extent in the Bonhill table suggests a half-carucate. The implication that Stukeroger may originally have been part of Tulliechewan further complicates matters.
Auchincarroch: Grant c. 1240 of ‘medietatem Quarterij Terre que dicitur hachenkerach In Parochia de Buthelulle’ (half a quarterland called Hachenkerach in parish of Buthelulle) towards the maintenance of the fabric of the church of Glasgow. (Registrum Episcopatus Glasguensis, Vol I, Nos 177 & 178). (It is possible that this ⅛ land was only half of Auchincarroch).
In sum we have for Bonhill:
an implied half-carucate of Bonhill west of Leven
a quarterland of Bonhill east of Leven
an eighthland of Miltoun east of Leven
an implied quarterland of Tulliechewan west of Leven (although the table suggests it was actually a half-land)
an eighthland of Auchincarroch east of Leven (although it may have been a quarterland in total).
I can find no evidence of the use of the word arachor in Bonhill.
In Cartularium de Levenax, pp 56-58, Donald earl of Lennox granted to Maurice de Buchquhanane, son and heir of the late Maurice de Buchquhanane:
illam carucatam terre que dicitur Buchquhanane una cum Sallachy, videlicet per has divisas, a Kelyn usque ad Aldmarr sicut descendit infra aquam de Hannerch, et illam terram de Sallachy, per has scilicet divisas, a Sallachy usque ad Kelg, et sicut descendit in stagno de Lochlomond
(that carucate which is called Buchanan, along with Sallachy, namely by these boundaries, from the Kelyn to Aldmarr as it falls into the River Endrick and the land of Sallachy, namely by these boundaries, from Sallachy to Kelg and then as it falls into Loch Lomond).
(See under Buchanan parish for further discussion).
I can find no evidence of the use of the word arachor in Buchanan – unless it occurs in the place-name Arrochy.
Cartularium de Levenax pp 32-3. Between c. 1272 and c. 1292 Earl Malcolm gave to Patrick Galbraith:
illas tres quartarias terre que fuerunt quondam domini David de Grame, cum illa quartaria terre que vocatur Balecarrage que fuit dicti domini David in tenemento de Kynkaid.
(those three quarterlands which belonged to the late David de Graham, with that quarterland called Balecarrage which belonged to the said David in the ‘tenement’ (holding) of Kynkaid).
Twice further in the same document it is confirmed that the total grant amounted to a carucate. I think Balecarrage = Balquharrage NS 6375 rather than Balcorrach. This document may imply that Balecarrage was part of Kincaid. In 1238 Kincaid was a carucate (see below under Kincaid) and I think Balecarrage was ¼ of it.
Fraser, Stirlings of Keir, No 6, 1381, gives a charter by William Galbraith to his son, James, of a carucate of Baldernock and a quarter carucate of Kincaid:
quartam partem vnius carucate terre … quartam partem de Kyncade, videlicet, illam quartam partem que iacet propinquior Kelvyne in occidentali parte, cum dimidietate molendini de Kyncade
(a quarter carucate of land … a quarter of Kincaid, viz., that quarter part which lies closer to the Kelvin on the western side, with half the mill of Kincaid).
Which was the quarter which lay closer to the Kelvin on the west side? Kincaid & Kinkell lay closer to the Glazert; Birdston lies to the east; Balquharrage lies to south-west and therefore seems the likeliest.
Cartularium de Levenax pp 30-1. In 1238 Earl Maldoven granted William, son of Arthur, son of Galbraith:
tres carucatas terre in Levenax, scilicet duas Buthernockis et tertiam carucatam terre que vocatur Kyncaith
(three carucates in Lennox, namely two Buthernocks and a third carucate called Kyncaith).
Cartularium de Levenax, pp 37-38, Maldouney earl of Lennox to David de Grame (Graham):
illam carucatam terre in Levenax que vocatur Mukraw, quam Lucas quondam tenuit de me ad firmum dum fuit decanus … faciendo … forinsecum servitium domino Regis … quantum pertinet ad unam carucatam terre in Levenax
(that carucate in Lennox called Mukraw, which the late Lucas held from me while he was dean … doing … forinsec service to the King … as much as pertains to a carucate of land in Lennox). Mukraw = Muckcroft.
RMS II (165 & 166) 1430 (based on originals of 1423) refer to the ‘carucatam terre de Bargrochane’ (the carucate of Balgrochan).
Cartularium de Levenax pp 52-53 – about 1350 Donald, earl of Lennox granted Finlay of Campsy:
illam quartariam terre que vocatur Ballinlochnach, illam quartariam terre que vocatur Balecorrach, cum dimidia quartaria terre de Balletyduf, Tomfyne, Fynglenane, et tenementa de Lanartaydy
(that quarterland called Ballinlochnach, the quarterland called Balecorrach, the half-quarterland (i.e. eighthland) of Balletyduf, Tomfyne, Fynglenane, and the ‘tenements’ (holdings) of Lanartaydy).
Ballinlochnach is probably Bencloich; Balletyduf is probably Baldow; Lanartaydy is likely to be Invertady.
Fraser, Lennox, II, gives 3 documents concerning Ballebrochyr and Lechad:
No 37 p 52, Charter by Malcolm, son of Bernard of Herth, to Giles, the son of the deceased Donald, son of Giles, of the lands of Ballebrochyr and Lechad (c. 1390-1400). (See also GD220/2/1/37).
dimidietatem quarterie terre que vocatur Ballebrochyr, cum pertinenciis, in tenemento de Cailsy cum dimidietate terre que vocatur Lechad
(an eighthland [literally ‘half a quarterland’] called Ballebrochyr, with pertinents, in the holding of Campsie with half the land called Lechad).
No 38 p 53, Resignation by Giles, son of Donald, of Ballebrochyr and Lechad, in favour of Alice of Erth, lady of Cragbernard. 13 February 1400
dimidietatem quarterie terre mee que vocatur Ballebrochyr, cum pertinenciis, in tenemento de Campsy; cum dimidietate terre mee que vocatur Lechad, cum pertinenciis
(as No 37 – although the land is described as ‘my’ land and Lechad is accorded pertinents)
No 39 pp 54-55, 13 February 1400 Charter by Alice of Erth, lady of Cragbernard, to Sir William of Grahame of:
dimidietatem quarterie terre mee que vocatur Ballebrochyr cum pertinentiis in tenemento de Campsy, cum dimidietate terre mee que vocatur Lechad cum pertinentiis
(as No 38)
Ballebrochyr will be Balgrochan in NS 6278. Lechad (also Leychhedis) will be Lecket Hill in NS 6481.
On 11/8/1423 there is a charter (Fraser, Lennox No 215 pp 411-413) by William of Grahame to John Brisbane of a quarterland in Campsy:
totam quarteriam terre in territorio de Campsy iacentem, que vocatur Ballenaclerach
(the whole quarterland lying in Campsie called Ballenaclerach).
In sum we have for Campsie:
a quarterland called Balecarrage/Balquharrage within Kincaid
a quarter carucate of Kincaid – probably Balquharrage
a carucate called Kincaid
a carucate called Mukraw (=Muckcroft)
a carucate called Bargrochane (=Balgrochan by Torrance)
a quarterland called Ballinlochnach (=Bencloich)
a quarterland called Balecorrach
an eighthland called Balletyduf etc (=Baldow)
an eighthland called Ballebrochyr (=Balgrochan by Campsie)
a quarterland called Ballenaclerach
(A total of 4 carucates)
I can find no evidence of the use of the word arachor in Campsie.
The farms of Dalquhurn in Cardross and Dalmuir in Kilpatrick are linked in the documentary records on a great many occasions. They were both owned by the Sprewl family and, as shown below, this ownership dated back to the time of Malcolm, earl of Lennox. They are consistently valued at £5 each or £10 together. Although I cannot quote evidence for these valuations before the mid sixteenth-century it seems reasonable to suppose that they had not changed from previous centuries. It is puzzling therefore that the following passages from the Cartularium de Levenax are not fully consistent with each other. The first states that the forinsec servive due from Dalquhurn was that which properly pertained to the third part of a quarterland. In the second the forinsec service due from Dalmuir is that which pertained to a quarter of a carucate. Since the farms had the same merkland assessment one would expect each of them to be classed as a quarterland and each due a quarterland’s forinsec service. For some reason Dalquhurn in Cardross escapes more lightly. I cannot explain this but I think they were both quarterlands.
Cartularium de Levenax pp 40-41, Malcolm, earl of Lennox to Walter Sprewl:
totam terram meam de Dalchorne … Faciendo … forinsecum servitium domini Regis .., quantum pertinet ad tertiam partem … unius quartarie terre in Levenax
(all my land of Dalchorne … doing … the king’s forinsec service – as much as pertains to ⅓ of a quarterland in Lennox).
Cartularium de Levenax p 42 , Malcolm, earl of Lennox to Walter Sprewl:
totam terram meam de Dalmore … Faciendo … forinsecum servitium domini Regis quantum pertinet ad quartam partem unius carucate terre in Levenax
(all my land of Dalmore … doing … the king’s forinsec service – as much as pertains to a quarter-carucate in Lennox).
RMS I (90) 1315-21 refers to the lordship of a carucate of Cardross exchanged for the half of Leckie nearest to Boquhan (Stirlingshire).
Irving Vol II p 345 states that John Napier had a charter of the quarterland of Kylmethew from Malcolm, earl of Lennox, about the end of the thirteenth century. This is not from the Cartularium de Levenax but may be from OPS I p 27 where it is written:
“Before 1294, John Naper held Kilmahew of the Earl [of Lennox], … paying what is exigible for a quarter of land in Lennox, (reddendo quantum pertinet ad unum quarterium terre in Levenax)”. Footnote 4 gives ‘Charters of Kilmahew’ as the source.
RMS I App 1 No 129, a.r. 28 (1358) gives a grant of David II to William Naper:
unacum medietate medietatis terrarum de [Kilmahew] in qua capella de Kylinchek situatur
(with half of the half of the lands of [Kilmahew] (i.e. a quarterland?) in which the chapel of Kylinchek is situated).
The name in square brackets is supplied from App 2 Index B No 3 (p 600) which gives this as ‘the half lands of Killmahew where the chappel is situate’.
Kilmahew was probably originally the name of a carucate which over time became attached to particular parts of it.
Fraser, Lennox, II, No 20, p 24, 1353:
illa quarteria terre que vocatur Keppach super Lewin
(that quarterland which is called Keppoch above (i.e. west of) the Leven)
Since we know from later documents that Keppoch was a £5 land this is one of the places in Lennox which offers us good evidence of the relationship between carucates and merklands.
In sum we have for Cardross:
a probable quarterland of Dalquhurn
a carucate of Cardross
a probable quarterland of Kilmahew
a quarterland of Keppoch
I can find no evidence of the use of the word arachor in Cardross.
Charter Chest of the Earldom of Wigtown (66) 1524 refers to two husband lands and maillings in Cumernauld. A husbandland is a term more often associated with south-east Scotland where it represented two oxgates. This is the only reference I know in Dunbartonshire so I am unsure whether the term reflects local usage or just that of the scribe.
The term husbandland may imply carucates locally – but I have no other evidence from Cumbernauld.
I can find no evidence of the use of the word arachor in Cumbernauld.
Retours (Dumbarton) (19) 1617 and (75) 1684 both refer to 2 bovates of Gartness. Since this evidence is relatively late and since bovates in Lennox are conspicuous by their absence I have not attached much weight to it.
Cartularium de Levenax pp 43-44, Malcolm, earl of Lennox to Gilbert of Carric:
illam quartariam terre que dicitur Cronverne, et illam quartariam terre que vocatur Buchmonyn propinquius adjacentem terre de Ballatt, in comitatu nostro de Levenax, et illam petiam terre que dicitur Blarefode adjacentem dicte terre de Cromverne
(that quarterland called Cronverne, and that quarterland called Buchmonyn contiguous to Ballatt, in our earldom of Lennox, and that piece of land called Blarefode contiguous to the said land of Cromverne).
The precise description of Craigievern and Balfunning as quarterlands contrasts with the imprecise description of Blairfad. Presumably this was because Blairfad was smaller and not of such consequence.
Cartularium de Levenax pp 29-30, Malcolm earl of Lennox to Arthur Galbraith:
illam quartariam terre de Buchmonyn que propinquior est terre de Blarnefode
(that quarterland of Buchmonyn which is nearer to the land of Blarnefode)
These documents give us two distinct quarterlands in Balfunning.
Cartularium de Levenax pp 75-76, Duncan, earl of Lennox, granted to Arthur (son of Andrew, son of Nigel (Neill)), and Celestine Maclachlane:
illa tria quartaria terre in tenemento de Garchellis, videlicet Blarindess, Auchintroig et Garthclachach
(those three quarterlands in the holding of Garchell, viz. Blarindess, Auchintroig and Garthclachach)
Cartularium de Levenax p 76, Duncan, earl of Lennox confirmed charters of Eugenius of Garchell and Margaret, daughter of Malcolm of Garchell, made to the ancestors of our kinsmen Arthur (son of Andrew, son of Nigel (Neill)) and Celestine Maklachlane:
de tribus quartariis terre in tenemento de Garchell, videlicet Blarindess, Auchintroig et de Gartclachach
(of three quarterlands in the holding of Garchell, viz. Blarindess, Auchintroig and of Gartclachach)
From the above it sounds as if Garchel was the original name of the ‘carucate’ and it also comprised the quarterlands of Blarindess (now lost or under another name?), Auchentroig and Gartclach. Presumably Garchel was itself a quarterland.
Since Auchentroig was both a quarterland and a £5 land this is further evidence that a carucate was worth £20 (30m).
Kepdowrie – stated to be a half-quarterland in the tenement of Cashlie in GD198/3 of early 14th century (which might imply 50s or 3¾m).
Cartularium de Levenax pp 45-46, Malcolm, earl of Lennox to Kessan
illam quartariam terre de Fynvoych que scotice dicitur Blarvotych et similiter Drumfynvoych, illam scilicet que propinquior est terre de Croyne … forinseco domini Regis servitio quantum pertinet ad unam quartariam carucatam de Fynvoych.
(that quarterland of Fynvoych [Finnich] which is called in Gaelic Blarvotych and likewise Drumfynvoych [Drumfinnich], which is nearer to Croy … [doing] the King’s forinsec service as much as pertains to one quarter-carucate of Fynvoych [Finnich]).
(The Index of variant readings on p 107 of the Cartularium de Levenax gives ‘Blarbotych et similiter Drumfynwaith’ from a MS in the possession of the Duke of Montrose).
For full discussion see Drymen table but I think this charter is simply referring to the two farms of Finnich-Blair and Finnich-Drummond. It may be that what is described here are two quarter-carucate farms which for some reason only did half the normal forensic service.
Cartularium de Levenax pp 54-55, Donald earl of Lennox granted to Nigel (Neil) Macblare and Muriel daughter of Gilmore, son of Malise, his wife:
illam dimidiam quartariam terre de Fynwyk propinquius adjacentem terre de Cather, quamquidem dimidiam quartariam terre antedictus Gilmore pater predicte Murielle … resignavit
(that half quarterland [i.e. an eighthland] of Fynwyk [Finnich] next to Cather [Catter], which half quarterland the foresaid Gilmore, father of the foresaid Muriel … resigned).
Catter is north-west of Finnich and the two parts of Finnich which are closest to Catter are Finnich Blair and Finnich Malise. This might mean an eighthland of Finnich Malise but there is not anough evidence to be certain.
Cartularium de Levenax pp 86-87, Malcolm, earl of Lennox granted to John, (son of Michael, son of Edolf) and his wife Forveleth:
illam quartariam terre in Levenax que vocatur Cambroun Tympane
(that quarterland in Lennox which is called Cameron Tympane)
Fraser, Lennox II, No 29 c. 1373 Charter by Walter of Foslene to Walter of Bochannane of an eighthland of Cameron by Gallangad.
totam dimidiam quarteriam terre de Cambrune que propinquius iacet terre de Kelnegad
(the whole half-quarterland of Cameron which lies next to the land of Gallangad)
The above two documents leave us with a dilemma. Either Cameron was a quarterland which divided into two eighthlands. Or it was a quarterland and an eighthland.
Cartularium de Levenax pp 83-84, in or before 1274, Gillemichell son of Edolf granted his son Malcolm (by Mythoc his wife)
illam quartariam terre que vocatur Gartchonerane
(that quarterland called Gartchonerane)
Reddendo p.a. to Malcolm, earl of Lennox:
decem solidos ad nundinas de Glasgw, et in exercitu domini Regis tantum cibum quantum pertinet ad unam quartariam terre in comitatu de Levenax … et faciendo de omnibus regalibus auxiliis quantum juste pertinet ad unam quartariam terre in comitatu de Levenax
(10s at Glasgow Fair, and as much food to the king’s army as pertains to a quarterland in the earldom of Lennox … and doing for all the royal aids as much as rightly pertains to a quarterland in the earldom of Lennox)
Cartularium de Levenax pp 84-85, c. 1274, Duncan son of Gillemichel Makedolf, confirmed to his brother Malcolm the gift which Gillemichel his father made:
de quarta parte unius arrochar terre que vocatur Garchonerane
(of the quarter part of an arachor called Garchonerane)
Reddendo as above but with a clause providing for a horse to carry the food. This charter proves that a quarterland was a quarter arachor.
Cartularium de Levenax pp 85-86, at Bellach, 1274, Malcolm, earl of Lennox confirmed
donationem illam, quam Gillemichell filius Edolf fecit Malcolmo filio suo super illa quartaria terre que vocatur Gartchonerane
(that gift, which Gillemichell son of Edolf made to his son Malcolm of a quarterland called Gartchonerane)
Reddendo as before.
See Drymen table for explanation as to why I think Gartchonerane is Gartachorrans.
The evidence from these last three documents is cumulatively very important. They prove that a quarterland is the same as quarter of an arachor; that a quarterland had to provide food for the royal army and also carried obligations towards royal aids.
In sum we have for Drymen:
possibly two bovates in Gartness
a quarterland of Craigievern
two distinct quarterlands in Balfunning
a quarterland of Blarindess
a quarterland of Auchentroig
a quarterland of Gartclach
an eighthland of Kepdowrie
a quarterland of Finnich Blair
a quarterland (probably) of Finnich Drummond
an eighthland (possibly) of Finnich Malise
a quarterland of Cameron
an eighthland (possibly) of Cameron
a quarterland, or quarter-arachor, of Gartachorrans (alias Conachra)
Cartularium de Levenax pp 84-85, c. 1274 proves arachors were then known in Drymen.
I can find no evidence for any land-assessment units in Dumbarton parish. There is one £10 unit which may have been a half-carucate but we are not told so. There are no carucates, quarterlands, eighthlands or arachors. Since the parish was closely geared to the needs of castle and burgh it occupies an unusual position amongst the parishes of Lennox.
I can find little evidence for land-assessment units in Fintry. There is one £10 unit which may have been a half-carucate and one £5 unit which may have been a quarterland but we are not told as much. There is no mention of carucates, quarterlands, eighthlands or arachors.
OPS I p 42 refers to Nentbolg under the parish of Fintray. I have discussed this under Killearn
Fraser, Lennox, I, pp 28-9, prints a warrant from Robert II to Sir Patrick Graham in 1388. He grants that the carucate of Kilmonevane plus other lands be transferred from Dunbartonshire to Stirlingshire. In RMS II (165, 166) 1430 (on originals of 1423) James I confirmed a charter of Duncan, earl of Lennox, which granted to Sir William Grahame the lands of the carucate of Kylmonagane – amongst others. I believe this carucate went under the name of Kilmannan in later centuries and was probably centred on what is now Auchineden farm. See Killearn table for full discussion.
Fraser, Lennox, II, No 21 c. 1342-1362 reads:
medietatem quarterii terre de Renroch, medietatem quarterii terre de Garterer
(half quarterland of Renroch, half quarterland of Garterer)
See Killearn table for full discussion of these two eighthlands.
In Cartularium de Levenax pp 79-80, Thomas de Cremennane gave Murechanich, the son of Kork:
totam quartariam terre mee de Croyne, quequidem terra jacet inter terram de Fynwyk ex una parte, et terram de Kynherin ex altera
(my whole quarterland of Croyne, which land lies between Fynwyk on the one side and Killearn on the other)
Cartularium de Levenax pp 80-81, Malcolm, earl of Lennox confirmed gift which Thomas de Cremennane made to Murdach Mackork:
super quartaria terre de Croyne
(over the quarterland of Croyne)
Croy was later a £5 land which adds to the evidence that a carucate was £20 or 30 merks.
Cartularium de Levenax, pp 35-6, Maldouny earl of Lennox to Stephen of Blantyr (c. 1250):
totam medietatem carucate terre de Kynerine, videlicet illam medietatem in qua ecclesia fundata est, que scotice vocatur Lecheracherach …
(the whole half carucate of Kynerine [Killearn], viz that half in which the church is built, which is called in ‘Scots’ (i.e. Gaelic) Lecheracherach)
The word ‘Lecheracherach’ is actually for Letharachor (or Leth-arachor) i.e. half an arachor (cf Skene, Celtic Scotland Vol III p 225 fn 28). In this document half a carucate is specifically equated with half an arachor.
Fraser, Lennox, II, No 11, pp 12-13, c. 1248 reads:
Kynherne … Letharathor
Cartularium de Levenax pp 34-5, Maldonich earl of Lennox (c. 1250?) granted Luce, son of Master Michael of Fyntryf:
illam dimidiam arrachar de Nentbolg que propinquior est terre de Fyntryf, et quam dictus magister Michael de me tenuit per has divisas, videlicet sicut rivulus qui appellatur Gyndhame descendit de monte et currit in Annerech, et ex parte occidentali sicut alius rivulus qui vocatur Bolgy descendit de monte et currit in Anneric, et sicut idem Anneric fluere solebat inter Bolgy et Gyndhame, … faciendo forinsecum servitium domini Regis quantum pertinet ad dimidiam unius arrachar in Levenax.
(that half arachor of Nentbolg which lies nearer to Fintry, which the said Master Michael held from me within these boundaries, viz., as the burn which is called Gyndhame falls from the hill and runs into the Endrick, and on the west as another burn called Bolgy falls from the hill and runs into the Endrick, and as the Endrick used to flow between Bolgy and Gyndhame, … doing the King’s forinsec service – as much as pertains to half an arachor in Lennox).
The OPS map equates Gyndhame with the Gonachan Burn (joins the Endrick at NS 6386) whereas I think the Gyndhame is more likely to be just west of Kilunan – which was itself at the west end of Fintry parish. It marks the Bolgy as a burn running north into the Endrick just west of Nentbolg (now Glenboig). There is more than one possible burn marked on Explorer 348. It could be the Cloch Burn (which joins the Endrick in NS 5888) or a burn nearer Glenboig.
Cartularium de Levenax pp 53-4, Donald earl of Lennox (c. 1350) granted Gilaspic, son of Macmaldouney, son of Alwin:
illam quartariam terre que vocatur Nentbolg Ferdane, jacentem inter Carfbethrune ex parte una et Culbachane ex parte altera …dictam quartariam terre de Nentbolg
(that quarterland called Nentbolg Ferdane, lying between Carfbethrune on the one side and Culbachane on the other … the said quarterland of Nentbolg).
(OPS I p 42 discusses this under the parish of Fintray).
Carfbethrune will be Carbeth – in this case Carbeth at NS 5287 – not the Carbeth at NS 5379 in Strathblane. Culbachane is Culvakkane (c. NS 5586) which is on record from 1477-8. On this reading Nentbolg Ferdane lay E of Carbeth and W of Culvakkane, on the south side of the Endrick. Unfortunately I have no clear later assessments to match to this quarterland.
In sum we have for Killearn:
a carucate of Kilmannan
an eighthland of Renroch
an eighthland of Garterer
a quarterland of Croy
a half carucate of Killearn – called a half arachor
a half arachor of Nentbolg (Glenboig)
a quarterland of Nentbolg Ferdane
We know there were arachors in Killearn in the mid thirteenth century – and that they were equivalent to carucates.
Cartularium de Levenax pp 55-56, Donald earl of Lennox granted to Gilbert Oliphant:
tres quartarias terre in comitatu nostro de Levenax que vocantur Porthnelane, videlicet, magnam quartariam de Porthnelane que jacet inter Knokgowr et Rossvue, una cum Ardach et Tulchane
(three quarterlands in our earldom of Lennox called Porthnelane [Portnellan], that is, the big quarterland of Porthnelane [Portnellan] which lies between Knokgowr [Knockour] and Rossvue [Ross], along with Ardach [Ardoch] and Tulchane [Tullochan]).
For full discussion see Kilmaronock table but it seems clear that we have three quarterlands here, later valued at £5 each.
I can find no evidence of the use of the word arachor in Kilmaronock.
RMS I (651) 1377-8 is a confirmation by Robert II of a grant by Robert, earl of Fife, to Sir Patrick Graham:
de dimidia carucata terre de Achynros
(of half a carucate of Achynros)
(See also RMS I (685) where it is spelled Achynrosse).
Achinross is occasionally used in later documents as a place-name or territorial designation but is now lost. See East Kilpatrick table for further discussion.
We have a document of c. 1285 which appears in the Montrose Muniments in the 2nd Report of the Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts, London, 1871, p 166, No 14. It is a charter by Sir Alexander of Dunhon to Sir Patrick of Graham of:
three quarters of a carrucate of land of Akencloy Nether, which in Scotch is called Arachor, namely, those three quarters called Clouchbar, Barauchan, and Barnaferkylyn.
The Latin term ‘carucate’ is explained as equivalent to the Gaelic term ‘arachor’. Clouchbar will now be Clobar and Barauchan is Barrachan. I am not sure of Barnaferkylyn (possibly Barloch?), but, like the rest of Achencloich Nether it will have lain immediately north of what is now Milngavie.
A strikingly similar document appears in Cartularium de Levenax, pp 38-9, where Malcolm, earl of Lennox, gave Patrick de Grame (Graham):
tres quartarias carucate terre de Auchincloich inferiori, que scotice vocatur arachor, scilicet Barnegalgy, Laut, Carnef, Releit, et Clanchabane,
(three quarters of a carucate of Nether Auchincloich, which is called arachor in Scots (i.e. Gaelic), namely Barnegalgy, Laut, Carnef, Releit, et Clanchabane,)
I think the places concerned are the same – it is just that the second list has become dreadfully garbled. Clanchabane is likely Clouchbar (Clobar) and Barnaferkylyn may match with Barnegalgy.
The remaining quarter-carucate of Nether Achincloich may be referred to in the following document:
Cartularium de Levenax p 27, Maldoney, earl of Lennox to Maurice, son of Gillaspic Galbraith, and to Arthur his son:
illam quartariam terre in Auchincloich que jacet propinquior Strochelmakessoc
(that quarterland in Auchincloich which lies nearer to Strochelmakessoc)
I have struggled to make sense of ‘Strochelmakessoc’ but the ‘makessoc’ element probably refers to Chapel Couch (St Kessog’s) which lies just west of Milngavie. In the Index of variant readings on p 106 of the Cartularium de Levenax the name is given as ‘Arochelmakessec’ from a manuscript belonging to the Duke of Montrose. This might mean ‘the arachor of St Kessog’.
In Cartularium de Levenax pp 26-7, Maldoven, earl of Lennox (fl. 1225 – c. 1270), granted to Maurice, son of Galbraith:
totam carucatam terre de Cartonvenach
(the whole carucate of Cartonvenach)
I have argued that this is Gartconnel (see file of ‘Problem Names’).
In sum we have for East Kilpatrick:
a half carucate of Achynros
three quarters of a carucate or arachor of Auchincloich Nether
a(nother) quarterland of Auchincloich
a carucate of Gartconnel
Arachors and carucates are specifically said to be the same.
Cartularium de Levenax p 42, Malcolm, earl of Lennox to Walter Sprewl:
totam terram meam de Dalmore … Faciendo … forinsecum servitium domini Regis quantum pertinet ad quartam partem unius carucate terre in Levenax
(my whole land of Dalmore, … doing … the King’s forinsec service – as much as pertains to a quarter-carucate in Lennox)
On the basis of its forinsec service I think it fair to conclude that Dalmuir was a quarterland. This is another example of a quarterland becoming a £5 land. Dalmuir was often linked with Dalquhurn in Cardross parish which I think was another quarterland.
In the Paisley Register, pp 165-6 we find references to:
illa dimidia carrucate terre de Cochmanach or illa dimidia carrucata terre de Cochmanach
(that half carucate land of Cochmanach)
which Paisley Abbey decided to leave in Dougal’s hands during his lifetime.
On the basis of later valuations of Cochno I don’t think this half-carucate was the whole farm.
In sum we have for West Kilpatrick:
a quarterland of Dalmuir
a half-carucate of Cochno (although the whole farm was probably worth more).
Fraser, Lennox, II, No 202, p 401, Charter by Maldoune, Earl of Lennox to Malcolm, the son of Duncan and Eva the Earl’s sister 10/8/1217:
Glaskell, Brengoene, et carucatam et dimidiam de Kelnasydhe
Glaskell, Brengoene, and a carucate (ploughland) and a half of Kelnasydhe
Then in GD86/2 or RRS IV Pt 1 No 7 pp 60-61, 1251, Alexander III confirms to Malcolm son of Duncan and Eva sister of Maldouen earl of Lennox the gift that the earl made them of the lands of Glaskhel and Barnego and 1½ ploughgates in Kilsyth
Glaskhel Brengoen et de una carucata terre et dimidia de Kelnasydhe
In sum we have for Kilsyth:
a carucate and a half of Kilsyth
I can find no evidence of the use of the word arachor in Kilsyth.
RRS II (528) 1175 x 1195 is a confirmation by William I of the grant made by Jocelin, Bishop of Glasgow, and William, son of Thorald, of the church of Kirkintilloch with a half-ploughgate (=Cambuskenneth Registrum No 25). The original grant by William, son of Thorald, is given in the Register of Cambuskenneth No 132, p 175 as ‘ecclesiam de Kirkintulauch … cum dimedia carucata terre’ (the church of Kirkintilloch … with half a carucate).
Some time before about 1210 William Cumin gave the church of Kirkintilloch, with its chapels and lands, and with the addition of another oxgate adjoining the churchland on the east side, to Cambuskenneth Abbey (Register p xxx). For Alexander II’s confirmation in 1226 see Register No 133 p 176.
In sum we have for Kirkintilloch:
a half-carucate with the church
an oxgate with the church
(because I am not certain that an oxgate in Kirkintilloch was the same as one-eighth of a carucate I have omitted this from the map)
I can find no evidence of the use of the word arachor in Kirkintilloch.
Luss and Arrochar
Cartularium de Levenax pp 19-20 gives a grant by Maldoney, earl of Lennox to Gilmore, son of Maldoney:
illam terram que dicitur Luss … faciendo de regalibus auxiliis communibus quantum ad duos arachor in comitatu de Levenax juste pertinet.
(that land which is called Luss… contributing to the King’s common aids what rightly pertains to two arachors in the earldom of Lennox).
In Cartularium de Levenax pp 96-98 Maldoven, earl of Lennox, tells us of the three lower quarters of Luss, and states that Luss was expected to contribute to ‘common aids’ as much as rightly attached to two arachors of land in the earldom of Lennox. Firstly it refers to:
t(re)s q(ua)rt(ar)ias inferiores de Lus(s) sci(lice)t Achadhtulech et Dunfin et Inu(er)laueran et aliam q(ua)rt(ar)iam que est ex occidentali p(ar)te de Lus(s)
(three lower quarters of Luss, namely Achadhtulech and Dunfin and Inu(er)laueran and another quarter which is on the western side of Luss).
Auchentullich (NS 3586), Dumfin (NS 3385/3485/3484) and Inverlauren (NS 3185) all lie north of River Fruin. The western quarterland is too vaguely described to identify. It mght refer to the NW corner of the parish.
Cartularium de Levenax pp 6-8, Robert to Duncan of Lennox, 8 May a.r. 15 (1320):
totam carrucatam terre que vocatur carucata terre Makgilchrist
(the whole carucate called the carucate of Makgilchrist)
Cartularium de Levenax pp 63-64, in 1354 Donald, earl of Lennox, refers to lands held by Malcolm son of Bartholomew
infra superiorem carucatam terre de Lus que vocatur carucata terre Macgilchrist
(within the upper carucate of Luss which is called Macgilchrist’s carucate)
Cartularium de Levenax pp 62-63, Donald earl of Lennox granted to Malcolm son of Bartholomew son of Maldoney (< 1364):
unam quartariam terre et dimidiam quartariam terre, jacentes inter rivulos qui vocantur Dywach et Aldanchwlyn ex parte una, et rivulos qui vocantur Hernane, Henys et Trostane ex altera, cum insulis de Elanvow, Elanvanow, Elandouglas et Elaig
(a quarterland and a half-quarterland [i.e. an eighthland] lying between the burns called Dywach and Aldanchwlyn on the one side and the burns called Hernane, Henys and Trostane on the other, with the islands of Elanvow, Elanvanow, Elandouglas and Elaig)
Malcolm will be holding these lands
sicut carta originalis, facta per antecessores nostros antecessoribus dicti Malcolmi, de superiori carucata terre de Lus que vocatur carucata terre Macgilchrist
(as per the original charter, made by our ancestors to the said Malcolm’s ancestors, of the upper carucate of Luss which is called Makgilchrist’s carucate).
In 1395 the charter is repeated virtually word for word (Cartularium de Levenax pp 64-65).
We can be sure that an arachor, a carucate and a ploughland were the same thing in 1392.
Fraser, Lennox, II, No 34, gives an indenture between Duncan Earl of Lennox and William of the Spens, burgess of Perth, and Isabel his spouse which deals with:
the pluchlande of Macgylcrist
RMS II (187) 1430-31, James I confirmed the charter of Malcolm, earl of Lennox which confirmed to Duncan, son of Gilchrist that gift which Maldouiny earl of Lennox, grandfather of the said Malcolm, made to Gillecrist, brother of the said Duncan:
de superiori Arochor, de Luss … faciend(o) de communibus auxiliis regis … quantum ad unum Arochor in Levenax pertinet
(of the upper arachor of Luss… contributing to the king’s common aids … as much as pertains to one arachor in Lennox).
In sum we have for Luss and Arrochar:
an implied two arachors of Luss
three quarterlands in the lower part of Luss: Auchentullich, Dumfin and Inverlauren
another (unnamed) quarterland on the western side of Luss
a carucate called Makgilchrist’s carucate in Arrochar. This is also an arachor or a ploughland.
a quarterland and a half-quarterland (i.e. eighthland) within specified bounds in Arrochar
In RMS I (83) Robert I grants Duncan:
duas quadrantas terre cum pertinenciis que vocantur Ratheon et Atrenmonythe in le Levenaux
(two farthinglands with pertinents, called Rahane and Altermonie, in Lennox).
OPS I p 504 gives two farthinglands (quadratas) for each of Ratheon and Altrenmonyth (i.e. 1d in total). It gives as source a charter ‘pasted in a volume in the collection of the Northern Institution, Inverness’.
Fraser, Lennox, II, p 403, No 205 c. 1248 Charter by Malcolme, son of Maldoune earl of Lennox to Malmore, son of Nielgus of:
duas quadrantes terre de Finphort, et quadrantem de Mammore, et quadrantem de Mambege, … Reddendo … annuatim duas marcas argenti …Faciendo … forinsecum seruicium regis quantum ad terciam partem vnius harathor in Leuenax pertinet
or National Records of Scotland transcript of GD198/217 1214-1248:
charter by Malcolm, son of Maldoune [Maldoven], earl of Leuenax [Lennox] to Malmore, son of Niel, of 2 quarters of land of Finphort, a quarter of Mammore and a quarter of Mambege, … under reddendo of 2m of silver yearly, and service belonging to ⅓ of an arachor in Leuenax.
I think that the ‘quarters’ here referred to are not quarterlands but farthing-lands. (See Rosneath table for further discussion). If so, then Malmore is given a pennyland in total and he has to provide the forinsec service for ⅓ of an arachor in Lennox. This might imply a pennyland was ⅓ of an arachor but I have no other evidence for this. It is also possible that the service to be rendered did not represent the full service you might expect from a pennyland.
We have three (possibly four) examples of ‘farthing-lands’ amongst the place-names of Rosneath. Feorlin-breck, Feorlin-na-carry, and Feorlin-more are all on record before 1500. We might expect a fourth feòirling to be called Feorlin-beg but Langlands plots Fernamgerry, which is not the same as Fernicarry, on his map of 1801. These names all include the Gaelic feòirling (farthing, farthing-land) which comes from the Norse fiscal system of pennylands found down the whole of the west coast.
In sum we have for Rosneath:
a farthingland (or a halfpennyland) of Rahane
a farthingland (or a halfpennyland) of Altermonie
a halfpennyland of Finnart
a farthing-land of Mam-more
a farthing-land of Mam-beg
a farthing-land of Feorlin-breck
a farthing-land of Feorlin-na-carry
a farthing-land of Feorlin-more
a (possible) farthing-land of Fernamgerry
This comes to between 2¼d and 3d. It is obvious that the Norse system of land-assessment was well-established in Rosneath. What is equally plain is that this was its eastern limit. There is not even a hint of it further east in Lennox.
I have seen no evidence for carucates or their sub-divisions in Rosneath. However the fact of a one-pennyland unit doing the service expected from one-third of an arachor does hold out tantalising possibilities. Moreover this one pennyland returned 2m silver per annum which is one-third of the silver rent which might have been due from a one pennyland unit (or 6m unit) in Cowal, Bute and Arran which lie just south-west of Rosneath. I have argued elsewhere that the pennylands of Kintyre, Cowal, Bute and Arran were actually davachs so this document might provide a link between davachs and arachors. There is also evidence of carucates in a part of Row that was formerly part of Rosneath. However we cannot build a grand theory on the basis of one piece of evidence.
Cartularium de Levenax pp 94-95, Donald, earl of Lennox granted to Walter of Foslen [Faslane]:
illam dimidiam carucatam terre que dicitur Laterwwald … faciendo inde forinsecum servitium quantum pertinet ad dimidiam carucatam terre in comitatu de Levenax
(that half carucate called Laterwwald … doing therefor as much forinsec service as pertains to a half-carucate in the earldom of Lennox).
Letrualt beg was 6m, Letrualt Moir was 7½m, making a total of 13½m. I would expect a half-carucate in Lennox to be worth 15m.
I have dealt with the assessment of Finnart under Rosneath (above).
Cartularium de Levenax p 91, Mald(owen) earl of Lennox granted to Dovenaldo (Donald) son of Macynel:
unam terram in Gleanfreone que dicitur Kealbride, que pro quarta parte unius harathor tenetur per has divisas, scilicet a Lavaran usque rivulum qui dicitur Crosc, sicut ambo descendunt de monte et currunt in Freone … faciendo … de predicta terra vicesimam partem servitii unius militis
(a land in Glen Fruin called Kilbride – held as a quarter-arachor with these boundaries: from the Lavaran to the burn called Crosc, and as both descend from the hill and run into the River Fruin … doing … for the foresaid land one-twentieth of a knight’s service).
The Lavaran is the burn by Inverlauren (NS 3185). The Crosc burn was probably just west of West Kilbride. (It cannot be the Cross Burn by Auchentullich because that does not run into the River Fruin). Kilbride was a quarterland but the service specified was not that of a quarterland but of one-twentieth of a knight. Were they different? And if the latter was less than the former was this anything to do with the fact that Kilbride may once have been churchland? (Compare Cartularium de Levenax p 27 where a quarterland of Auchincloich was held for a 1/32nd part of a knight’s service).
In sum we have for Row:
a half carucate called Laterwwald
a quarter-arachor called Kilbride
Fraser, Lennox, II, No 7, Charter by Maldouen, earl of Lennox, to Sir David of Grahame c. 1240
illam medietatem carucate terre de Stratblathane ubi ecclesia fundata est … quod Scotice vocatur Arator … Reddendo … annuatim tres marcas argenti …
(that half carucate of Strathblane where the church is built … which in Gaelic is called Arachor … Rendering … 3 merks of silver yearly)
Fraser, Lennox, II, No 9. Document from Maldowen concerning the settlement between Malcolm, his late son, and David de Graham. (After 1/8/1248).
de dimidia carucata terre de Stratblathan, ubi ecclesia fundata est que Scotice vocatur Letarchore
(of the half-carucate of Strathblane where the church is built which in Gaelic is called Half-arachor)
As explained in the Strathblane table I don’t think the fact that one document refers to Arator while the other says Letarchore is significant.
Cartularium de Levenax, pp 38-9, c. 1270-1292. Malcolm, earl of Lennox gave Patrick de Grame (Graham):
tres quartarias carucate terre de Strablane, que scotice vocatur arachor, scilicet duas quartarias terre ubi ecclesia de Strablahane fundata est, et unam quartariam terre de Mogadavacros
(three quarters of a carucate of Strathblane, which in Gaelic is called arachor, namely two quarterlands where the church of Strathblane is built and one quarterland of Mogadavacros).
This reiterates the grant above (of a half-arachor on which the church was built) and adds a quarterland of Mogadavacros.
The final ‘quarter’ of the original carucate or arachor of Strathblane was Mugdock-Michell or Easter Mugdock-Michell. RMS II (2711) 1503 refers to
quartam partem de Mukdok vocatam Mukdokmichell
(quarter of Mukdok called Mukdokmichell).
In sum we have for Strathblane:
a half-carucate (or half-arachor) where the church was built
a quarterland of Mogadavacros
a quarterland of Mugdock-Michell
The Cartularium de Levenax gives 4 examples of use of the word ‘scotice’ – i.e. ‘Scottish’ – or more specifically, Gaelic. Three of these have the sense of equating the Latin word carucata (ploughland) with the Gaelic arachor (pp 35-6, Killearn; pp 38-9, East Kilpatrick; pp 38-9 Strathblane). The fourth gives the Gaelic name of a quarterland of Finnich in Drymen.