|Name||Value||Date||Grid Ref||Map Sources||Other forms, comments etc|
|The original 2 carucates||Baldernock was originally 2 carucates but received additional lands from Campsie in 1649.|
|Kragin Castel (Blaeu). Castle in ruin. Grassom (1817).|
|Bankend||NS 5776||RHP 5302/9|
|Fraser, Stirlings of Keir, No 86, 1510, refers to £5 Blacharne; No 113, 1526, refers to £5 Buchquharne; No 180, 1550 refers to £5 Bloquharne & Boghowss.|
|Fraser, Stirlings of Keir, No 86, 1510, refers to ‘v nobillis woreht’ (5 nobles worth) of Kirktoun & No 113, 1526, refers to 50s worth.
Kirktoune of Bathernoch was 50s OE in Fraser, Stirlings of Keir, No 133, 1532. Blaeu marks Kirktoun just S of Bodeirnock K.
Stirlings of Keir, No 159, 1542, is probably referring to 40s Kirktoun of Baldernock.
|Fraser, Stirlings of Keir, No 86, 1510, refers to ‘v nobillis woreht’ (5 nobles worth) of Bankell & No 113, 1526, refers to 50s worth.|
|Bankell & Kirktoun||£5||1550||Fraser, Stirlings of Keir, No 180, 1550.|
|Hillend||NS 5775/5774||RHP 5302/7|
|Auchenhowie||£5||1618||c. NS 5673||Blaeu(Lennox)
|AS II (35). West of Bardowie Loch, N of Water of Allander, but E of western boundary of Baldernock.
|Dowan Farm||NS 5774||RHP 5302/4||Included in valuation of Auchenhowie above.|
|Langbank||NS 5773||RHP 5302/5|
|The Jaw||NS 5773||Roy(GM25)
|Boghall||NS 5774/5874||RHP 5302/1|
|This may be the Boghowss linked with Blochairn above. However there are a number of ‘Bog-‘ names in this area so it is possible there was more than one ‘Boghouse’.|
|Fluchter Mill||NS 5874||Blaeu(Lennox)
|Retours (Stirling) (273) 1675. See also under Bankeir.|
|Ex Campsie lands||These were lands that came to Baldernock from Campsie in 1649.|
|Barraston||NS 6075||Blaeu(Lennox)||See below.|
|Drumlockart||NS 603756||OS (1860)||OS 6″ 1st Series Stirlingshire Sheet XXVII (1860). See below.|
|Blaeu(Lennox)?||= Barskyths (Blaeu). See below.|
|c. NS 5975/6075||Blaeu(Lennox)||Bankeir (1504-5). = Ballinkere of RMS II (1686) 1487.
Westir Bankeir alias Bankeir-Stirling (1654). See below.
|Branzeid & Bawincleir||9m||1506||Fraser, Stirlings of Keir, No 77, 1506, valued these ‘tempore pacis’ (i.e. Old Extent) as 9m (£6). See under Branziet and Bankeir.|
|Mekill & Litill Balmore were parts of the barony of Mugdok in Stirling Retours (120) 1627, (239) 1665.|
|Temple (of Balmore?)||1671||NS 5974||Grassom(1817)||This is NW of Balmore and presumably the Temple of Ballmoir in Guthrie Smith, Strathblane, p 82 fn 1, 1671. Ex Templars.|
|Orchard||20s||1632||NS 5974||Grassom(1817)||RMS IX (1529) 1644, No 4 on original of 1632.|
|Ballindrocht||£5||1510||c. NS 6072/6073
Cartularium de Levenax pp 26-7, Maldoney, earl of Lennox (fl. 1225 – c. 1270), granted to Maurice, son of Galbraith:
totam carucatam terre de Cartonvenach
(the whole carucate of Cartonvenach)
OSA p 271 equates Cartonbenach with Bathernock. OPS I p 47 equates Cartenvenoch with Bardowie.
Nimmo, 3rd edition Vol 1, pp 56-7, has this to say of “The Auld Wives’ Lifts”:
On Craigmaddie Moor, in the parish of Baldernock, anciently Cartenbenach, another remarkable antiquity is found. … The place appears to have been Druidical, and the ancient Celtic name Gart-na-Beannachd, signifying “Field of Blessing,” might have originated from this circumstance.
On this interpretation ‘Gart-na-Beannachd’ may have been an old name for Craigmaddie and thence the western carucate of Baldernock (see further below under 1381).
However I have not found evidence to support these assertions and have argued that Cartonvenach is in fact Gartconnel in New or East Kilpatrick parish.
Cartularium de Levenax pp 30-1. In 1238 Earl Maldoven granted William, son of Arthur, son of Galbraith:
tres carucatas terre in Levenax, scilicet duas Buthernockis et tertiam carucatam terre que vocatur Kyncaith
(three carucates in Lennox, namely two Buthernocks and a third carucate called Kyncaith).
Reddendo p.a. dimidiam marcam argenti (half a mark of silver)
Fraser, Lennox, II, No 10, c. 1248 includes a witness who was parson of
Gilbert de Buthernok from the county of Stirling signed the Ragman Roll in 1296 (Bannatyne Club p 145).
Fraser, Stirlings of Keir, No 6, 1381, is a charter by William of Galbraith, lord of Katconvall, to his son, James, of:
vnam carucatam terre … scilicet, dimidietatem de Estyrbothernokis, videlicet, illam dimidietatem que iacet propinquior Kelvyne, et dimidietatem de Westyrbothernokis, videlicet, illam dimidietatem que iacet propinquior la More
(one carucate … namely, half of Easter Baldernock, viz., that half which lies closer to the Kelvin, and half of Wester Baldernock, viz., that half which lies closer to ‘la More’ (the Muir/Moor?))
Evidently there were two carucates in Baldernock, one east, one west. This charter deals with the southern half of the east carucate and the northern half of the west carucate. ‘La More’ presumably describes Blairskaith Muir and Craigmaddie Muir.
Cartularium de Levenax pp 72-73, 1394, Duncan, earl of Lennox, has inspected a charter of John Hamilton, lord of Buthernok to Margaret Fraser:
de terris de Buthernok
(of the lands of Buthernoc)
in which John Hamilton, lord of Buthernok, granted Margaret Fraser (in hope of marriage):
nomine conjuncti feofamenti, omnes et singulas terras meas de Buthernok cum pertinentiis, infra comitatum de Levenax
(in name of joint infeftment, all and each my lands of Buthernok with pertinents, within the earldom of Lennox)
OPS I p 47 and Cartularium de Levenax pp 71-2; early in the 15th century Duncan, earl of Lennox, confirmed to John Hamilton:
totas terras de Buthernok
(the whole lands of Buthernok)
OPS argues that since the yearly Reddendo is the same (dimidiam marcam argenti half a merk of silver) this property is that which was granted on Cartularium de Levenax pp 30-31 (see above). I agree – and this means that Baldernock was 2 carucates, Easter and Wester, as described in 1381.
As time rolls on so we begin to learn more detail of the constituent farms. For ease of reference I have compiled a separate table of these.
In RMS II (2816) 1504-5 James IV confirmed a charter by the Earl of Lennox, to John Hammiltoun of Buthernok of the lands of Buthernock, viz:
Berdowy, Barnellane, Boghous, Kirktoun, Bankell, Blacharne, Fluchart, Blaiskaith, Bankeir, Ballindrocht, Hawistoun, Birdstoun, Barcharage & Kincaid.
In RMS III (394) 1526 James V granted James Hammyltoun of Fynnart the lands of Bardowe, Flowchtard, Blairskarth, Birdistoun, Bawchindrowch, Bawcharrage, Kincaid, Hawistoun and Kirktoun.
Stirling Retours (139) 1630 (see also (243) 1667, (246) 1668, (301) 1686, (317) 1694) lists the lands of Bardowie (with its tower and lake), Bernellon, Blairskeath, Easter Bankeir, Flauchter, Ballindroich, Hawystoun, Blaquharen, Boghous, Bankell, Kirktoun de Bothornok with right of presentation, Boquharraige and an acre of land lying at the eastern end of the Mains of Bardowie, (£5 OE – but I think this only applies to the last-mentioned property).
What is obvious from these lists is that although Baldernock, the parish, only consisted of 2 carucates in 1238 the name – as a district, estate, or possibly parish name – included farms that would not formally become part of Baldernock until they were separated from Campsie in 1649. But although the documents use the term Baldernock loosely I have tried to make clear in the tables which parish each farm belonged to.
Knowing the constituent properties we can then start to flesh out the individual valuations. William Fraser’s ‘The Stirlings of Keir’ contains a number of documents which help reveal the land-assessment situation in Baldernock. In particular No’s 86 & 113 deal with lands owned by Thomas Galbraith of Balkindrocht. By November 1510 he had alienated large parts of his estate to a group of local landowners led by John Hamilton of Bardowie. Specifically, John Hamilton had gained £5 of Blochairn, John Logan £5 of Balkindrocht, Uchtred Knox £5 of Hawston, John Stewart of the Lennox family and John Stewart of Blackhall had each gained £5 of Kirkpennyland (Inverkip, Renfrewshire), while Peter Culquhoun got 50 shillings of Kirktoun and Alan Stewart 50 shillings of Bankell. (According to GD3/1/10/92/1 £5 10s of Kirkpennyland in Inverkip were sold to John Stewart in July 1502).
Cumulatively this amounted to £30 worth of lands – which was a considerable estate – of which £20 lay in Baldernock or the neighbouring part of Campsie. It is difficult to know the full back-story but it appears Thomas Galbraith was mentally incompetent because a brieve of ‘idiotry’ was to be served on him to prevent him alienating any further lands. Possibly because the local landowners had gained these properties on the cheap, King James IV felt he should have been involved, so in 1510 a decree arbitral was made by 6 eminent personages (three of them bishops) who determined that the King was to be paid the not insignificant sum of £600 for his agreement.
However by 1526 (Document No 113) it seems that the £600 remained unpaid and James V passed over collection of the debt to John Stirling of Keir – presumably thinking that a prominent local man might have more success. By now Thomas was dead although it wasn’t until 1532 (Document No 135) that Elizabeth Galbraith, his sister, was recognized as one of his nearest lawful heirs. We have further references to the Baldernock and Campsie parts of these Galbraith lands in Documents No 180 & 181.
If we put all this information together we can pin down the Baldernock and Campsie farms as:
£5 Blochairn which included Boghouse (both in original parish of Baldernock).
£5 Balkindrocht – then in Campsie but transferred to Baldernock after 1649.
£5 Hayston (also called Gawistoun) – in Campsie.
£5 Kirktoun and Bankell (each worth 50s) (both in original parish of Baldernock).
(There is one slight complication which is that in 1510 the lands of Kirkton and Bankell are each described as 5 ‘nobles’ worth. Land-assessment documents which refer to ‘nobles’ are fortunately very rare and other documents in the series described above make it clear that each property was worth 50 shillings. A noble was a coin worth half-a-merk or 6s 8d although in later times it could be worth 10s).
Baldernock – original 2 carucates.
Fraser, ‘The Stirlings of Keir’, No 131, shows Awchinhowye (Auchinhowie) to have been in Stirlingshire in 1532.
RMS III (3176) 1545 lists a £9 (13½m) estate which includes Auchinhoway, Dowane, Bariskeith, Branzet & Ballinkeir. In GD1/426/1/23/111 Vol 1 No 471 of 1566 this £9 estate is listed as comprising Wester Ballinkeir (Bankeir), Wester Blairskayth, Branezett and Auchinhowe. What is plainly the same estate is given in GD220/1/A/6/2/2 & 4 1566 as £9 but includes ‘Douan’ (Dowan Farm). In Stirling Retours (362) 1594 there is reference to half the £9 OE of Auchinhowy, Dowen, Blayrskayth, Brainzet & Ballinker. The lands of Auchinhowie (with mill) are given as £9 in Dumbarton Retours (27) 1627, (30) 1634, (46) 1647, (61) 1665.
Auchinhowy is £5 in AS II (35) 1618 and AS I (77) 1619. However GD220/1/F/3/3/3 1698 refers to £5 Auchinhowie, Dowan & Blairskeith. Looking past the various shorthand forms given in the documents it seems that Auchinhowie, Dowan & Wester Blairskeith came to £5 (7½m) while Wester Ballinkeir and Branzett added another £4 (6m). Brainzeat was 4m in 1675 (Stirling Retours (273)) and Wester Bankeir was 3m in 1654 (Stirling Retours (210)) but these retours are relatively late.
Ex Campsie lands
OPS I p 45 states that: In 1649 that part … of SW Campsie which lay between Balgrochan and the Brawzyet burn was annexed to Baldirnoch (21 ploughgates). If there were 12 ploughgates to a carucate that would be equivalent to 1¾ carucates.
Laing Charters (489) 1544 refers to a grant of Gartlechane alias Barrestoun. The granter was the Earl of Montrose and the property lay in the ‘Carietam’ of the granter’s land of Balgroquhan. The editor of the Laing Charters, John Anderson, inserted ‘[Carucate?]’ after ‘Carietam’ as a possible translation. I think he is correct. We know that Balgrochan was a carucate which belonged to the Grahams (see under Campsie) and Barraston may have represented its north-western section. Drummond (p 128) shows the alternative name surviving as late as 1785.
Drumlockart lies west of Barraston and the name may well refer to an old hunting-station (Drummond p 134). It is Drumlochtirhill in Laing Charters (489) 1544.
GD220/2/1/14 of c. 1280 is a charter for ‘Drumloche, in the territory of Buchernoc, and also of the land of Drumfode’.
See also Fraser, Lennox, II, No 14 c. 1280 (& No 15 c. 1280 – spellings the same)
Drumloche in territorio de Buchernoc, et eciam terram nostram de Drumfode
(Drumloche, in the territory of Buchernoc, and also of our land of Drumfode)
After the death of William Galbraith these lands now went to Patrick Graham. The only problem about identifying Drumloche with Drumlockart is that c. 1280 the latter was in Campsie parish, not Baldernock. However perhaps that is why the charter says ‘territory’ not ‘parish’. Moreover RMS II (2816)
1504-5 lists lands in Campsie as part of a description of the lands of Baldernock. I think that between 1280 and 1505 it is possible that Baldernock was a territorial designation that could be used to cover an area more extensive than the actual parish. Drumfode will be Drumfad in Row parish. W Fraser, Stirlings of Keir, No 9, is a transumpt, dated 1405, of a charter by Malcolm, Earl of Lennox, dated 1278, to William Galbraith, of ‘Kyrkmychell’ and ‘Drnmmade’ where the latter will be Drumfad.
I cannot give a valuation for Blairskaith but I think that, like Bankeir, it was divided into Wester and Easter – each with different histories. Wester Blairskaith
was part of the £9 Auchinhowie estate (see GD1/426/1/23/111 Vol 1 No 471 of 1566). However because the documents are reluctant to specify which part of Blairskaith they are dealing with it is difficult to trace the descent of these properties – although I suspect they largely match those of Bankeir below.
The situation with Bankeir is confusing. This is partly because documents sometimes refer to Bankeir when I suspect they are actually only referring to half of it. It is also partly because we need to distinguish between the families who had feudal superiority over lands and those who actually tenanted them.
In RMS II (1686) 1487 James III confirmed John Hamilton of Bardowy’s grant of Ballinkere to his son, also John Hamilton, in 1486 – to be held of the king as Earl of Lennox. In 1524 the Earl of Lennox sold the superiority of Easter Bankeir to the Stirling family – see Fraser, Stirlings of Keir, No 111. See also RMS III (1212) 1532, RMS VII (510) 1611 and Stirling Retours (139) 1630 for the Stirlings and Easter Bankeir.
Wester Bankeir seems to have had a different history. In RMS III (3176) 1545 Queen Mary granted the Livingstones of Kilsyth a £9 estate comprising Auchinhoway, Dowane, Bariskeith, Branzet and Ballinkeir – which had been previously held of the Earl of Lennox. GD1/426/1/23/111 Vol 1 No 471 of 1566 gives a £9 estate comprising Wester Ballinkeir (Bankeir), Wester Blairskayth, Branezett and Auchinhowe. This was then held by the Campbells from the Livingstones. However a retour of 1506, (Fraser, Stirlings of Keir, No 77), shows that the Stirlings then held a £6 land of Branzeid and Bawiueleir (Bankeir) from the Campbells (of Auchenhowie). Stirling Retours (210) 1654 shows that Westir Bankeir, alias Bankeir-Stirling, was held by the Stirling family and valued at 3m OE.
In summary I think Bankeir had been divided by about 1500 and probably had a total value of 6m although I only have concrete evidence for the 3m of Wester Bankeir.
Ballindrocht (1504-5), Balkindrocht (1510), Badhindrocht (Blaeu) + little bridge symbol going over R. Kelvin just to S. First element < Sc.G. baile (farm, township), middle element < Sc.G. ceann (head, end), last element < Sc.G. drochaid (bridge). The English equivalent would be Bridgend.
Fraser, Stirlings of Keir, No 86, 1510, refers to £5 Balkindrocht; No 113, 1526, refers to £5 Balkindroeht; No 159, 1542, refers to £5 Ballindrocht; No 180, 1550, refers to £5 Balkindroeht. (We can ignore printing errors like -droeht since they are numerous in this volume).
On the basis of Edgar’s map in Nimmo, and the relative position of Bogton, it looks as if Ballindrocht was a settlement at the NW end of what is now the Torrance Bridge.
Retours (Stirling) (273) 1675 refers to ¼ acre in Balindroich in the croft called Tourefauld. The first element of Tourefauld may be for Tower (NS 6174).